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Since then, one single woman has managed to make a whopping 48 million paywalled articles publicly accessible. In terms of making the knowledge of the world available to the people who are the rightful owners, this woman, Alexandra Elbakyan, has single-handedly been more successful than all OA advocates and activists over the last 20 years combined. Twenty years on from Seglen’s analysis a new paper by Jerome Vanclay from Southern Cross University in Australia has reiterated the statistical ineptitude of using arithmetic means to rank journals and highlighted other problems with the impact factor calculation.
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One solution is to dedicate space in existing journals, or even make entirely new journals, for publishing replications. This critical component of science needs to be given a higher priority. The real test of these results, however, came in the replication. Several researchers tried to replicate one or more of Bem’s protocols, with mostly negative results. Far more important than Bem’s unlikely claims and unimpressive research was the reaction of journal editors to these replications.
The vaccine cut the need for infants to need to see a doctor because of RSV by an average of more than 50% compared with a placebo. That result did not fall within a statistical range that was specified by the FDA before the outset of the trial, however, so the company acknowledges that the vaccine missed that particular goalpost. Sandom continues to consult in the world of interactive advertising and digital marketing communications, and recently launched a new media capture and sharing app and cloud resource called MemoryBox.
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Even in the current post-TRIPS era, patent-seeking private industry still looks to governments to provide funding for pharmaceutical research, especially for essential medicines. While many of the consequences of wasting these infrastructure funds on publishers have become apparent only more recently, the indefensibility of ever-increasing subscription pricing in a time of record-low publishing costs, was already apparent 20 years ago. Hence, already in 1994, it became obvious that one way of freeing ourselves from the subscription-shackles was to make the entire scholarly literature available online, free to read.
Much of the focus of the meeting organizers was on getting people who attended the meeting to sign on to a series of documents expressing various types of commitment to promoting pre-prints in biomedicine . People come to meetings, they sign a document saying they do all sorts of great stuff, and then they forget about How to Calculate the Cost of Sales it. This analysis supports the idea that there are different tiers of journal . But the JIF is the bluntest of tools to separate these journals. A more rigorous analysis is needed to demonstrate this more clearly but it is not feasible to do this while having a dataset which agrees with that of Thomson-Reuters .
So researchers are expected to list the specific blood tests and symptom-rating scales that they will use, for example, alongside the dates on which measurements will be taken, and any cut-off values they will apply to turn continuous data into categorical variables. In the course of assembling weekly lists of articles in our field, we began noticing more peer-reviewed articles containing what we call substantial or invalidating errors. These involve factual mistakes or veer substantially from clearly accepted procedures in ways that, if corrected, might alter a paper’s conclusions. Numerous professional bodies, educational institutions, government agencies and journals have convened meetings during the past few years to put science under the microscope. Issues such as reproducibility and conflicts of interest have legitimately attracted much scrutiny and have stimulated corrective action. As a result, the field is being invigorated by initiatives such as study pre-registration and open data.
The latter recently announced a $300-million joint venture with Bayer AG to develop new drugs for a range of illnesses. Culture is customer is our God we represent customer as much as information for products to him if they deal or.not. Demonstrate an ability to resolve complex issues, manage user relationships and delivery. Proactively seek ways to reduce the volume of support work, identifying common / recurring issues, and proposing improvements. They will also own technical artefacts such as systems requirements, solutions design and security & privacy reviews.
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Of course, they are very happy to seize on this opportunity to distract from the real problems we’re facing, by staging a lawsuit to keep their doomed business practices running for yet a little longer. Perhaps more amusingly, one suggestion from the publishers of how to respond to Sci-Hub is to make access even more restrictive and expensive. I’ve only been around the OA movement for 10 years, but the ignorance, the gall and the sheer greed of publishers has astounded me time and time again. Essentially, in my experience, the only reply we ever got from publishers to our different approaches to reform our infrastructure, has been one big raised middle finger. Clearly, two decades of negotiations, talks and diplomacy have led us nowhere. Publishers have opted to remain outside of the scholarly community and work against it, rather than with it.
Essentially everyone at the meeting embraced the basic concept of pre-prints from the beginning, and we spent most of the meeting discussing details about how a pre-print system in biology can and should work, and how to build momentum for pre-print use. Finally, my new partner-in-crime Leslie Vosshall and I spent a lot of time and energy trying to rally support for pre-prints online leading up to the meeting, and it wasn’t like people were knocking down the doors to sign on to the cause. Vanclay’s paper is a worthy addition to the critical literature on the impact factor. Its defects and perverse effects are well known and have been dissected by David Colquhoun, Michael Eisen and Peter Lawrence, among others. Even Philip Campbell, editor-in-chief of Nature, which has one of the highest impact factors in the business, has recognised that we need to escape its dispiriting hold over the lives of researchers. There are numerous problems with this calculation that I don’t have time to go into here.
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However, I wouldn’t have kept at this for almost half my life it I wasn’t an eternal optimist, and I went into the meeting hoping, if not believing, that this time might be different. By the end of the meeting’s 24 hours it seemed like nearly everyone in attendance was sold on the idea that biomedical researchers should all post pre-prints of their work, and had already turned their attention to questions about how to do it. And there was a surprisingly little resistance https://1investing.in/ to the idea that post-publication review of papers initially posted as pre-prints could, at least in principle, fulfill the functions that pre-publication review currently carries out. That’s not to say there weren’t concerns and even some objections – there were, as I will discuss below. But these were all dealt with to varying degrees, and there seemed to be a general attitude these concerns can be addressed, and did not constitute reasons not to proceed.
For example, examining pseudoscience has really brought home for me the critical importance of independent replication. We often hear impressive-sounding results from single studies that appear to support one pseudoscience or another. It may not be possible from the published report where the researchers went wrong. The only way to really know is to independently replicate the results. If the researchers were genuine visionaries ready to change science, their results should replicate reliably.
Typically when I research any medical issue there are multiple studies and we can look to see what the consensus of results show. The journal is the project of biotech company Amgen Inc. and biochemist Bruce Alberts. The journal is a response to evidence that many scientific findings that are still relied upon cannot be replicated. To me this is a problem of stoichiometry in science, to use a nerdy metaphor. In order for scientific progress to be optimal we need to have the perfect mix of researchers doing new and speculative research vs doing confirmatory research or applied research.
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- Google Scholar is a potential solution but it needs to be more open with its data.
- What’s more, ushering a new drug or therapy through the arduous process of clinical trials and regulatory approval is time-consuming and expensive.
For many nations, that flexibility meant excluding medicines from patent protection. For example, Germany’s patent law of 1877 labeled medicines as “essential goods,” along with food and chemicals, and prohibited any attempts to patent them. When governments don’t take a sufficiently activist role in the field of medicines, public opinion pushes them further.
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Sales of the Eliquis, a blood thinner to treat clots and prevent strokes, came in at about $1.5 billion, a 9% increase over the same quarter last year. And Pfizer’s pneumonia vaccine, Prevnar, booked $1.6 billion in global sales, an increase of 11% over the same period in 2021. It now expects earnings per share of $6.40 to $6.50 for the year, up from its previous forecast of $6.30 to $6.45. The pharmaceutical company also raised the lower end of its sales guidance and now expects revenue of $99.5 billion to $102 billion for the year.
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Almost all major medical journals supposedly endorse these guidelines, and yet we know that undisclosed outcome-switching persists. Editors are often unable or reluctant to take speedy and appropriate action. For one paper, we obtained raw data deposited online, received institutional approval to reanalyse the data, and submitted a letter to the editor (through the manuscript-submission system) describing a need for correction within two weeks.